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Mega Projects of Science Research

Mega-projects of science research (MPSR) projects are referred to the projects of large-sized (or large quantity of investment needed),modernized key instruments and equipments needed in the process of scientific research. The are not only necessary conditions for multi-disciplines to make major break-throughs, but also can often promote the development of other disciplines and engineering technologies. MPSRs are often assembled crack research teams to form the bases of talent training. Because the construction of those projects represents high technical level, high degree of difficulty and large quantity of investment, they become an important sign of the national strength in science and technology.

During the Seventh Five-year Plan period, China constructed ten MPSRs which played a very good role in the performance of the national scientific strength and in the performance of high level research activities, and accumulated experiences for the construction of MPSRs, including:

1. Raised scientific research in China to a higher level and promoted the development of high technologies of related disciplines such as machinery, electronics and optics;

2. Brought up a high level, crack scientific research team covering design, construction, operation and management and became bases for the training of high level professionals in China;

3. Worked out a batch of international first-rate scientific research achievements, in which accurate determination of quality of –lepton corrected 7.2 Mev of shift of -lepton quality and played a key role in the solution of the universality issue of lepton; the establishment of solar magnetic field telescope made China possess the most advanced equipment acknowledged in the world in the world in the field; and the Lanzhou heavy ion accelerator was used to synthesize heavy particle-rich new nuclides such as Hg-208 for the first time in the world.

During the Ninth Five-year Plan period, the state will implement in a rolling manner several major scientific engineering projects based on in-depth study and widespread consultation of opinions of various circles, constructing one only when the conditions have become matured, in the fields of physics, astronomy, life science, geoscience, etc. that are of important scientific significance and can play an important role and inspire the people.


The determination and construction of MPSRs should follow and embody the principle "Grasp key points and catch up the advanced world level on the selective basis". In order to ensure the rationality of the determination of MPSRs, special attention must be paid to detailed planning, adequate demonstration and careful selection.

The basic principles for the determination of MPSRs are that the projects selected should have significant impacts on the development of the national economy or science and technology; need an investment research; can retain the advanced international level in a period after completion or have the possibility of making China a new force in the field; and the design should have creativity.

In the performance of the determination the following should be achieved:

1. The state makes detailed planning and a good level design, based on that, MPSRs are selected so as to really achieve important breakthroughs of scientific research and promote the rapid development of related disciplines;

2. Adequate and accurate scientific demonstration is carried out. In-depth study and widespread consultation of opinions of all circles are made and special attention is paid to the opinions of scientists who hold different or even opposing opinions;

3. The principle of careful selection is insisted on. MPSRs all represent large investment in science. Careful selection should be made according to the actual situation of financial capacity and economic development of the country. The governmental support is key to the implementation.


After full demonstration by experts, the first batch of MPSRs have started as approved by the State steering committee for science and Technology and have been included in the national plan for capital construction and hence gained support.

1. The second phase project of the national synchronous radiation laboratory

(1) scientific purposes

The first phase project of the National Synchronous radiation laboratory (NSRL) passed the completion examination and acceptance by the state in Dec. 1991. Its successful operation has yielded a batch of important achievements of application of synchronous radiation. Since it was opened to domestic and foreign users, the number of users who ask to make experiments with radiation light has been increasing and so has the requirement for light source.

Therefore, it is pressing to add new light beam experiment stations and improve the performance of light source. The main purposes of the second phase project of NSRL are to raise the brightness and stability of light source to a large extent and add new light beam lines and experiment stations so as for NSRL to practically meet the needs of scientific and technological development for synchronous radiation light source around year 2000.

(2) Features

The main contents of the second phase project are to add 21light beam lines and 22experiment stations; construct the two insertion elements of undulators and free electron laser, provide monochromatic tunable coherent radiation, improve light sources to realize high brightness operation.

The features of the project are to continuously improve and enhance the performance of light source and retain the international advanced level while fully using the capacity out studies of application of synchronous radiation; and to newly build experimental stations of advanced technologies, with the Chinese characteristics or created by Chinese, most urgently needed by users.

2. Large Celestial area, Multi-Objective, Optical Fiber Spectrum Telescope (LAMOST)

(1) Scientific purposes

The viewing fields of existing large-sized telescopes are too small, usually less than one square degree, but the celestial areas to be explored measure dozens of thousands of square degrees to be explored measure dozens of thousands of square degrees. Therefore, to enlarge the viewing field of large-sized telescope becomes key to the development of "multiple optical fiber spectrum metering "in the current phase. LAMOST realizes "large aperture with large viewing field", a goal that has long been considered a difficult issue for astronomical telescope. The effective clear aperture of LAMOST is 4m, the focal distance 20m(F=5), the viewing field reaches 21square degrees, the celestial area covered is more than 20000 square degrees (over one half of the whole celestial sphere). The plan for LAMOST has caused intense response among international colleagues. After completion, it will first be installed at the existing, the observed limit integral magnitude of galaxy metering will be 20. M7 and the observed magnitude of fixed stars 21. M0; the number of optical fibers used at the same time will be up to 4000 so as to enable china hold an important superiority in astronomical exploration in the transitional period between the current and next centuries.

(2) Features

The main features of LAMOST include:

1 The focal distance is as long as 20m, thus enabling the design of large viewing field of 21 square degrees that is difficult for common 4m telescopes. The long focal distance and large viewing field enable the number of optical fibers to be inserted to reach more than 4000;

2 The key technology for the acquirement of large viewing field is the elimination of spherical aberration. In the LAMOST system, the reflector as sums tracing and the active optical technology is used to control the "non-spherical" shape of the reflector and real time correction of spherical aberration is made. This application of the active optical technology is initiative for astronomical instruments. Experiments have shown that this method has good effects.

3. Observation Network for Crustal movement in China

(1) Scientific purposes

1 Establish the four-dimensional image and stressing status model of crustal movement of mainland China. Hence promoting the study of causes of seism, cresting new thinking and new methods for the zoning of seismic intensity and providing a more scientific and important basis for the medium-long term forecast of seism.

2 Develop quantified explanation and carry out studies of tectonic physics of China's important modern tectonic activities.

3 Work out results of modern movement of mainland China relative to adjacent plates.

4 Provide services for the refinement of China's geoldal surface, study of unification of the national coordinate system, regional geodetic surveying and engineering construction.

(2) Features

1 establish a dynamic monitoring system for space geodetic surveying of mainland china, mainly including.

A national (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao) GPS monitoring network composed of 80 monitoring stations so as to make each sub-plate and mass have at least three GPS monitoring stations;

B A high precision gravity network composed of 20-30gravity points, including 10 absolute gravity points;

C Newly developed synthetic aperture radar, micro-wave radiation remote sensing and other satellite electromagnetic wave remote sensing technologies as supplement for a small number of area to study the displacement, stain and change of materials in those areas.

D A computer information processing system, which integrates database and database management technologies, temporal and spatial data processing technologies and computer graphic technologies and realizes accelerated circulation and application of observation data of various kinds.

2 Establish a monitoring network for space geodetic surveying (mainly GPS and individual gravity) in relation to surrounding and neighboring regions.

4. Meridian Chain for the Ground Comprehensive Monitoring of Space Environment of East Hemisphere-Meridian Engineering Project

(1) Scientific purposes

The Meridian Engineering Project is referred to the plan to establish a comprehensive ground monitoring chain of multiple means for the solar-terrestrial space environment, starting from Mohe in the northernmost part of China, extending southward through Beijing and Wuhan and reaching Hainan, and further extending to the Zhongshan station at the south pole. This chain of stations is called meridian chain for short.

The engineering purposes of the project are to form a unified comprehensive monitoring system gradually from the scattered space environment monitoring stations and means in China by conducting unified, complete meridian monitoring chain around the earth through international monitoring chain around the earth through international cooperation.

The scientific purposes of the project are to take he meridian chain as the means to develop the space environment global model with the Chinese characteristics and promote the development of basic disciplines such as space physics by acquiring perceptual knowledge with the Meridian chan and proceeding from revealing the regional characters of the space environment of china.

The application purposes of the project are to provide high level services for the study, forecast and assessment of the space activities, production activities and eco-environment of china, make contribution to the formation of the discipline of "Space Weather "in the world, give play to the leading function of China in east Asia and make China enter the advanced international rank in the 21st century.

(2) Features

The most outstanding feature of the meridian chain is that it will finally constitute the first complete space environment monitoring chain around the globe in the world, which has never occurred in the history of space surveying and will be difficult to be built again, Therefore, the meridian Chain will probably hold an international advanced position for quite a long period. The second feature of the meridian chain is that it has the regional characters of china, is suitable for the studies of space and geophysics for the territorial space and territory and the results cap directly serve the space activities of china. The third feature is the high comprehensiveness, tight organization, integration of observation, research and forecast and integrated operation of radio, geomagnetism, optics, cosmic ray, rocket, balloon, etc..

5. HT-7U Superconducting Tokamak Fusion Experimental Equipment

(1) Scientific purposes

Since year 1992 deuterium-deuterium discharge has been made successfully on the two worldwide largest Tokamak magnetically confined fusion experimental equipments, Europe JET and US TFTR, hence demonstrating the scientific feasibility of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Based on that, engineering design of an international engineering experimental reactor for thermonuclear fusion (ITER) is being made and the reactor will be completed in year 2008, with 1500Mw of power output. Nevertheless, and economical commercial reactor must be highly effective, compact and realize stable operation. Therefore, the realization of the so-called advanced Tokamak operation mode through effective heating and improved confinement under stable operational conditions is a frontier subject in the fusion research in the world. There is still no large-sized superconduction Tokamak of none-circular section in the world at present and will only by a few in year 2000.

HT-7U is none-circular section superconducting todamai. The scientific purpose of building such an equipment is to realize stable operation and carry out experiments on heating and confinement improvement under the Tokamak advanced operation and finally realize the Tokamk advanced operational mode. The construction of the project will make the fusion research in China enter the frontier in the world around year 2000.

(2) Features

1. HT-7U is of none-circular section. The divertor configuration can control boundary; the shaping field can flexibly control plasma configuration; high power wave heating and wave drive are combined with bullet feeding and wave drive are combined with bullet feeding and feedback control to control current , electron density, electron temperature and ion temperature section and probe into the physical basis of advanced operational mode.

2 The whole system is formed by upgrading the HT-7 superconducting Tokamak experimental system, hence only a small amount of investment is needed for improvement to meet the needs by HT-7U.

6. Implementation of the First Continental Well drilling and scientific research

(1) Scientific purposes

Continental well drilling is an important frontier subject of the modern geoscience. In this project the first continental well will be installed in the Dabie-Jiaonan area with the following scientific purposes;

Understand the cause, preservation and folding mechanisms of the superhigh pressure metamorphism zone of the largest scale in the world developed in the area and enrich the geoscientific theory on superhigh pressure metamorphism function.

Understand the formation and evolution of paleocollision type orogenic zone and deep geologic functions type orogenic zone and improve the geoscientific theory on orogenic functions.

Understand the ongoing geologic functions in the area and provide the basis for the solution of continental dynamic issues and provide the solution of continental dynamic issues and for resource utilization and environmental hazard reduction.

(2) Contents and features

Outline of the engineering project

The first continental well of china will be installed in the Dabie-Jiaonan area with 5,000 m of design well depth and 152m of the final diameter and the implementation will last 5-6years in three phases;

Phase1 preparation before drilling 2-3years

Phase2 construction, 1-2years

Phase 3 comprehensive study of the results, 2years, in which new data of various kinds will be comprehensively studied, the experiences and lessons from the construction will be summarized so as to make preparation for the implementation of china in the next century.

Features of the project

Directly observe and reveal geologic phenomena and geologic functions at different depths below surface with the means of well drilling and solve the important issues of earth surface and geology and geoscientific issues that cannot solved with common drilling engineering.

Its features include carrying out study in the process of drilling in the area of crystalline rocks, total fixed position extraction of core and samples of various kinds (including solid, liquid and gas samples), omnibearing logging and automatic control of drilling parameters with computers, etc..

7. Cooling Storage Ring of Lanzhou Heavy Ion Accelerator

(1) Scientific purposes

The Lanzhou heavy ion accelerator (HIRFL) has yielded a batch of research achievements of advanced international level, such as synthesis of heavy neutron-rich new nuclide Hg-208, etc. for the first time in the world.

The scientific purposes of adding the multi-purpose heavy ion cooling storage ring (csr)to HIRFL are:

1 Study of radioactive secondary beam (RIB) physics: use the radioactive beam current of high current intensity and high quality of CSR and isomeric beam current and polarization beam current to carryout synthesis and study of nucleus;

2 study of quality of nuclear material under the conditions of high temperature and high density: use the stable nucleus and radioactive nucleus beams from low energy to 900MeV/u to collide with target nucleus, heat and compress nuclear materials to create conditions of nuclear of high temperature and high density for the studies of state and the mutual impact between neutron and hadron of nuclear material;

3 Study of physics of highly ionized atoms: the high-resolution and highly ionized heavy ion beam and high-density electronic current from CSR provide the only possible experimental conditions for the accurate study of mutual impacts between highly ionized heavy ion and the energy level fine structure of inner shell of highly ionized heavy ion .

4 Study of synthesis of super heavy elements: the high intensity neutron-rich secondary beam current of the same N/Z value (1.6-1.7) as that of super heavy nucleus and the (A,Z) direct identification method of CSR provide favorable conditions for the study of "super heavy islands".

5 Uses by intersection disciplines :1 in the study of astrophysics the low-moderate energy neutron-rich and proton-rich beams are used to study the creation, evolution, origin of energy, process of nuclear synthesis, distribution of quality abundance comic age, etc.;2 heavy ion beam can be used to cure cancers by usr of the high current intensity heavy ion beam and RIB beam from CSR that can penetrate any part of human body and can cure tumors in human body very effectively under the premise of minimum damage to other parts of human body .

(2) Features

High counting rate: the primary and secondary beams are used in a circle so as to raise RIB current intensity and experimental counting rate.

Quasi- continuous beam: when the beam current hits the internal target in circles in the experimental ring, the main ring periodically inserts beam currents into the experimental ring so that quasi-continuous beam currents into the experimental ring so that quasi-continuous beams are produced in the experimental ring and relatively thick internal targets can be used to get high experimental brightness.

8. The Third Generation Synchronous Radiation light source

(1) scientific Purposes

The two sets of synchronous radiation light sources built on mainland china in 1980s have the problems of low light intensity, short machine hours, limitation to the promotion of performance, etc., as limited by the high energy physical experiments, and will not be able to meet the needs by more research projects for high brightness hard X ray and extremely high brightness soft X ray.

The third generation synchronous radiation light source is an equipment of high performance, medium scale and entire wave -band. The light intensity in the division of band of soft X ray is 5-6 magnitudes higher than that of the existing level in China; the light intensity in the division of band of hard x ray is over 3 magnitudes higher than that of the equipment in Beijing; and other performances are also promoted greatly such as high temporal resolution ratio, which will made possible the study of structure, components, dynamic characteristics of structure, components, dynamic characteristics of materials under the micro-area, normal position, dynamic, transient and extreme conditions so as to provide new methods and means for the studies of international frontier level in multiple fields that cannot be carried out in china at present because of shortage of necessary conditions.

(2) Features

The third generation synchronous radiation light source, or China Light Source (CLS), is composed of the three major portions of injector, storage ring and synchronous radiation experimental equipment. The total area covered is 15,000-20,000m2. The injector is of total-energy injection. The electronic energy of the storage ring is 2.3-2.5 GeV, the permeter is about 240m and the storage ring is components, correctors, auxiliary components, etc. The synchronous radiation experimental equipment is composed of light lead-out components, light beam lines and experimental stations. It is planned to build 15 light beam lines and corresponding experimental stations in the first phase of the project.

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